External quality assessment (EQA) for early childhood education institution is based on the results of performance of the internal quality assurance (IQA) system of each individual institution. IQA system formulated by the institution itself has to be approved by its parent organization. The IQA has to be in accordance with the context of the early childhood development institution, as well as the National Education Plan, and the policy and focus of the parent organization. It reflects the quality of management, the organizing of learning and play experiences to promote the development of early childhood. The assessment of child development is a confirmation of the quality of early childhood development institution. EQA for early childhood development institution focuses on the verification to confirm results of operation of the early childhood education institution. Three aspects of the management of early childhood development institution provides an example for assessment as follows:
However, if there were an early childhood development institution who formulated its own standards other than the three aspects specified above, external assessors cand adjust the framework for EQA to align with standards of that particular individual institution.
Part 1: Guidelines for determining and judging quality levels
ONESQA has formulated guidelines for determining quality level judgment with example for the three aspects as follows:
|1. Quality of children||1.1 Suitability and feasibility||Consideration will be based on child development goals and criteria that correspond to the child's context and actual condition.|
Consideration will be focused on the process and results of the child quality assessment together with the results of the examination based on actual conditions or observable evidences. This method relies on multiple sources of data to verify and
to reconfirm in order to assure the consistency of the decision, which reflects the reliability of
the assessment results.
Consideration will be based on four areas of
This is to verify whether children have any development comparing with the previous calendar years. The information will reveal how the quality of children can be maintained comparing with previous year.In addition, the information can indicate whether the development had decreased number of children with slower development or number of children with special needs. It, also, can provide information on innovation and good practices by considering concepts, methods, and creative activities that
have been applied for development, or changes in problem solving in trying to enhance better and continual development that has been satisfied
all parties concerned.
|2. Management and management processes||2.1 Systematization||Consideration will be based on effectiveness of the operation of early childhood development institution and the sustainability of the process. Information on the participation of all stakeholders; clearly defined goals and implementation; supervision and follow-up, as well as continuous development of the institution will be considered.|
|2.2 Reliability||Consideration will be based on the process and self-assessment results of the institution to be checked against the results of reviewing of the actual conditions or observable evidences. Multiple sources of data should be verified to determine the consistency of the judgment to confirm whether the decisions are consistent, which reflects the reliability of the assessment results.|
|2.3 Effectiveness||Consideration will be based on the results of the performances of teachers and care givers of the early childhood development institution by focusing on child-centered experiences management. This includes care giving, children development, management of learning and play experiences, classroom management, goals of self-development and career development, and the attainment of the mission and goals of the institution. The decisive elements also inclusive of innovation and good practices by considering concepts, methods, new creative activities that have been incorporate for the improvement, changes for problem solving, development of institutional management system to increase efficiency and effectiveness of the institution that can serve as role model for others.|
|3. Experiences management focusing on child-centered||3.1 Systemization||Consideration will be based on the process of the management of child-centered experiences for early childhood development. It focuses on well-rounded care giving and development of children. It must promote physical development and healthcare; intellectual, language and communication development; promoting emotional, physical and social development; instilling good morality and citizenship among children. Moreover, early childhood development must also pay attention in promoting the transition-stage of children to adapt to the next level of learning activities.|
|3.2 Reliability||Consideration will be based on the process and assessment results of the management of child-centered experiences. The assessment includes performance of caregiving and management of learning and playing experiences among teachers, child caregivers. The information will be checked against results of observation in the actual conditions or observable evidence. The method uses multiple sources of data, verification, and the consistency of the decision, that will reflect the reliability of the assessment results.|
|3.3 Effectiveness||Consideration will be based on the performance of teachers/child caregivers in the management of child-centered experiences, as well as caregiving and development. The management of children development institution must also pay more attention to the management of learning and playing experiences, classroom management, self-development and professional development of personnel in accordance with the goals or objectives set by early childhood development institution. This includes innovation, good practices based on concepts of new creative methods and activities that can be used for development and changes for problem solving or learning experience management to be more efficient and effective that can be served as role model for others.|
Basic standards for quality assessment for early childhood education
There are five quality levels for the EQA for early childhood education. Each quality level is qualitative judgments that reflect the actual performance of the institution. They are as follows:
|Outstanding quality level||means that the assessed early childhood development institution has implemented in consistent with the criteria completely, appropriately, and feasibly. The process, together with the quality assessment results are reliable. It has affected the improvement of children development their continuous developments. The achievements are satisfied by all parties and providing innovation or good example for others|
|Very good quality level||means that the assessed early childhood development institution has operated in consistent with the criteria completely, appropriately, and feasibly. The Process, together with the quality assessment results are reliable. It has affected the development of the quality of children and their continuous developments.|
|Good quality level||means that the assessed early childhood development institution has operated in consistent with the criteria completely, appropriately, and feasibly. The Process, together with the quality assessment results are reliable. It has affected the upgrade of the quality of children.|
|Average quality level||means that the assessed early childhood development institution has operated appropriately and feasibly. The process, together with the quality assessment results are reliable, meets the criteria, but does not meet some of the requirements.|
|Need improvement quality level||means that the assessed early childhood development institution cannot meet most of the criteria.|
Part 2: “Par Excellence” assessment for early childhood education
The “Par Excellence” assessment is an assessment to uplift the quality of early childhood development institution to be recognized locally, regionally, nationally, and internationally. The assessment will allow opportunity for distinguished early childhood development institution to share its good practices and model for other early childhood development institution. Therefore, distinguished early childhood development institution can volunteer to be assessed by ONESQA in the “Par Excellence” category. In this regard, ONESQA encourages external assessors to consider project, activities, and early childhood development institution with outstanding performance to take opportunity to develop its excellence further. External assessors can conduct “Par Excellence” assessment for such outstanding institution.
The parent organization of such institution can bring results to such assessment into consideration to promote, encourage, and assist early childhood development institution to develop and uplift the quality of education of institutions under its jurisdiction and supervision.
Quality dimensions of early childhood development institution required for application for “Par Excellence” assessment are as follows:
|1. Essential basic requirement||Development of languages and communication skills.|
|2. Early childhood education innovation||Creation of innovation, research, applying body of knowledge on early childhood education and its development focusing on child-centered. Caregiving and continual development of early childhood that affects the quality of children, and capability to harness lessons-learned in the development process as a model or as a clear example, such as organizing activities: eating; hugging; story-telling; and learning through play. Children development should include the development of 5 elements as follows: morals; culture; virtues; ethics; and nature. In addition, early childhood development must include active learning, creative thinking, exploring, skill training on brain executive functions, and positive reinforcement.|
|3. Learning communities||Administrators, teachers, supporting personnel, parents, communities, academics, and officers of relevant agencies have platform and space to exchange opinions on their knowledge and experiences on early childhood development. Cultural heritage of the communities and societies should be integrated to create and develop early childhood development.|
|4. Environment conducive to develop quality of learning and playing||Creation, management, or organizing environmental conducive to the development of the quality of children's learning, which contributes to the behaviors in learning and playing that are beneficial to early childhood development.|
|5. Development of individual child including normal and child with special needs||There are development system and campaign to develop potential of each individual child. It requires screening to identify potential of each individual child development. Appraisal program will help children with special needs, such as integrated activities to develop children’s sensory system. There should be program for the development of individual child by working with parents and experts in the field.|
|6. Others.||Development in accordance with the uniqueness of the institutions.|
Guidelines for determining the “Par Excellence” assessment are as follows:
Judging the “Par Excellence” quality level will determine the achievement by considering proportion, percentage compared to all number of children and the quantity of their works as recognized continually by the regional, national, international academic community. There are 3 quality levels as follows:
|Assessment criteria||Quality Level|
|Early childhood development institution can achieve the desired results and serve as a model. It is considered as outstanding and meet requirement of internationalization.||C3|
|Early childhood development institution can achieve the desired results and serve as a model. It is considered as outstanding and recognized nationally.||C2|
|Early childhood development institution can achieve the desired results and serve as a model. It is considered as outstanding and recognized locally and regionally.||C1|