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Vocational Education

Vocational Education

2 March 2022 | อ่าน 654 ครั้ง

Framework for the External Quality Assurance for Vocational Education

Framework and guidelines for the External Quality Assurance for vocational education institutions is formulated in accordance with the Vocational Education Act B.E. 2551 (A.D. 2008), which is classified into three 3 categories of vocational education institutions as follows:

  1. EQA framework and guidelines for vocational education institutions or other education institutions that provide traditional vocational education and bilateral vocational education systems.
  2. EQA framework and guidelines for vocational education institutions or other education institutions that deliver work-related training.
  3. EQA framework and guidelines for vocational education institutions that deliver undergraduate teaching in the field of technology or teaching vocational students who will work in operational lines.

Development of EQA framework and guidelines for vocational education institution, ONESQA has worked in collaboration with parent organization of vocational education. The purpose is to formulate a consistent and integrated EQA system with the policies of the Ministry of Education and the concepts of the National Reform Steering Assembly. The EQA focuses on assessing results according to mission and standards at the vocational education level. In addition, the EQA uses the same basic data and information on vocational education with its parent organization and it is in consistent with the internal quality assurance (IQA) of vocational education institutions. Moreover, the EQA may consider the internationalization issues of vocational education institutions in the assessment process. The EQA framework and guidelines for vocational education institutions consists of three aspects as follows:

Aspect 1: Desirable characteristics of vocational education graduates.
Aspect 2: Vocational Education Management.
Aspect 3: Building a Learning Society.

Framework and guidelines for EQA for each individual vocational education institution

 

Aspect

Determining issue

Description

1. Desirable characteristics of vocational education graduates

1.1 Suitability and feasibility

Consideration will focus on the goals/criteria for determining the desirable characteristics of vocational education graduates that correspond to the context and genuine condition of the graduates.

1.2 Reliability

Consideration will focus on the process and results of the student quality assessment together with the results of the inspection based on genuine conditions or observable evidences. This method relies on multiple sources of data to verify and to reconfirm assessment results in order to assure the consistency of the decision, which will reflect the reliability of the assessment results.

1.3 Effectiveness

Consideration will be based on the results of the development of performances of graduates in various fields according to the criteria of each level of education and the context of each individual vocation education institution. This is to verify whether students have any improvement comparing with previous academic years. The information will reveal how well students maintain levels of their development in learning, or their learning is at similar level of the previous year. It, also, can provide information on innovation and good practices by considering concepts, methods, and creative activities that have been applied for self-development, or changes in problem solving in trying to enhance higher competencies by institutions themselves that can serve as a good example for others.

1.4 Innovation or Best Practices

Innovation refers to concepts or methods used in practice, to solve problems or for development, which affects changes in mindset. Obviously, it is a further development and increasing value. There is a positive goal, which has the criteria for consideration namely: C – Creativity; N – New, that is new in that context; V – Value-Added, valuable and useful; and A –Adaptive. Best practices refer to the patterns of practices or procedures that affects institution success or to achieve its goals of excellence. The vocational education institution is recognized academically and professionally and its successes have obvious evidences. The success procedures can be systematically summarized and provide traces of observable evidences that can be disseminated to internal or external agencies as useful lessons-learned.

2. Vocational education management

2.1 Systematization

Consideration will be based on the effective operation and the sustainability of the process of vocational education institutions. This includes the participation of all relevant stakeholders; clearly defined target for clear operation, as well as the supervision and the development to monitor and to improve the systems continuously. /td>

2.2 Reliability

Consideration will be based on results of self-assessment on the operation process and performance of vocational education institution. The assessment results will be rechecked against the results of the inspection of the genuine conditions or observable evidences. This method relies on multiple sources of data to verify and to reconfirm assessment results in order to assure the consistency of the decision, which will reflect the reliability of the assessment results.

2.3 Effectiveness

Consideration will be based on comprehensive results of vocational education management and management in the development of performance-based curriculums. Learning management should be focused on teaching and learning leading to practical skill based on learner-focused vocational education. Goals and objectives of the vocation education institutions should pay attention to the development of teachers and administrators, cooperative vocational education program, and mobilization of resources for the development of teaching and learning. In addition, the objectives of vocational education institutions should also cover community services, volunteer spirit, basic infrastructure, learning center and vocational service center, etc. Vocational education institutions should establish good working relations with students, teachers, its board and relevant stakeholders. They should be able to create innovation and good practices that can be determined from their institutional concepts, operational process, or creative activities that have been implemented to improve and to solve problem with new changing paradigms, or for the development of higher effectiveness and efficiency of institutions that can be served as good practices and model for others.

2.4 Innovation or best practices

Innovation refers to concepts or methods used in the operation of institutions to solve their problems or for development, which affects changes in the mindset of their staffs. Obviously, it is a further development and increasing value of the institutions. There is a positive goal, which has the criteria for consideration namely: C – Creativity; N – New, that is new in that context; V – Value-Added, valuable and useful; and A –Adaptive. Best practices refer to the patterns of practices or procedures that affects institutional success or endeavors to achieve its goals of academic excellence. The vocational education institution is recognized academically and professionally and its success has obvious evidences. The success procedures can be systematically summarized and provide traces of observable evidences that can be disseminated to internal or external agencies as useful lessons-learned.

3. Teaching and learning process focusing on learner-centered

3.1 Systemization

Consideration will be based on building an effective learning society focusing on learner-centered. The management of teaching and learning, as well as supplementary activities are consistent with the local and community contexts based on the interests of learners. Learners should have opportunities to participate in the formulation of the contents of teaching and learning, as well as supplementary activities. The curriculum should provide creative exchanges of learning opportunities among learners. Classroom management should be conducive to learning environment. There should be methods designed for effective measurement and assessment tools for learning. The assessment results will be used for providing feedback to learners so that they can apply the results for self-improvement, as well as providing input for teachers to continuously improve themselves and to improve their teaching profession. In addition, the consideration will also be focused on the endeavor to build learning society by teachers and administrators of the institution. This method relies on multiple sources of data to verify the assessment results by reconfirming the results with genuine conditions and observable evidences. By so doing it can assure the consistency of the results, which will reflect the reliability of the assessment results.

3.2 Reliability

Consideration will be based on assessing the performance of building learning society carried out by teachers and administrators with the results from genuine condition and observable evidences. It is based on multiple sources of information and data to verify and to reconfirm the consistency of the decision, which reflects the reliability of the assessment results.

3.3 Effectiveness

Consideration will be based on the performance of teachers and administrators to build learning society. The determining factors include procedure to build learning society; classroom management; self-development and professional development according to the goals or objectives set by the institution. The institution should be able to create innovation and good practices that can be determined from their institutional concepts, operational process, or creative activities that have been implemented to improve and to solve problem with new changing paradigms, or for the development of higher effectiveness and efficiency of the institution that can be served as good practices and model for others.

3.4 Innovation or best practices

Innovation refers to concepts or methods used in the operation of institution to solve its problems or for development, which affects noticeable changes in the mindset of their staffs; process of the institution; and the institution itself. It is a further development to increase value of the institutions with positive goal as its target. The criteria for consideration are as follows: C – Creativity; N – New, that is new in that context; V – Value-Added, valuable and useful; and A –Adaptive. Best practices refer to the patterns of endeavors or procedures that have been brought to make the institution successful or to achieve its goals of academic excellence. The vocational education institution is recognized academically and professionally and its success has obvious evidences. The success procedures can be summarized methodically and provide traces of observable evidences that can be disseminated to internal or external agencies as useful lessons-learned.

 

Criteria for the category of “Basic Standards” quality assessment for vocational education institutions

There are five quality levels for the category of “Basic Standards” for the EQA for vocational education. Each quality level is qualitative judgments that reflect the genuine performances of the institution. They are as follows:

Outstanding quality level means that the assessed vocational education institution has implemented in consistent with the criteria completely, appropriately, and feasibly. The process, together with the quality assessment results are reliable. It has affected the uplifting the quality of vocational students and they have continuous developments. The achievements are satisfied by all parties and providing innovation or good example for others.
Very good quality level means that the assessed vocational education institution has operated in consistent with the criteria completely, appropriately, and feasibly. The process, together with the quality assessment results are reliable. It has affected the development of the quality of vocational students and their continuous developments.
Good quality level means that the assessed vocational education institution has operated in consistent with the criteria completely, appropriately, and feasibly. The process, together with the quality assessment results are reliable. It has affected the uplifting of the quality of vocational students.
Average quality level means that the assessed vocational education institution has operated appropriately and feasibly. The process, together with the quality assessment results are reliable, meets the criteria, but does not meet some of the requirements.
Average quality level means that the assessed institution has operated appropriately and feasibly. The process, together with the quality assessment results are reliable, meets the criteria, but does not meet some of the requirements.
Need improvement quality level means that the assessed vocational education institution cannot meet most of the criteria.

 

Criteria for the category of “Challenging” quality assessment for vocational education

Criteria for the category of “Challenging” quality assessment for vocational education institutions are inspiring criteria to uplift the level of vocational education institution from basic standards to a more advance level called “Challenging” quality assessment criteria. The consideration criteria, which is in line with the policies of the parent organization, the Ministry of Education, as well as that of the Thai government. Moreover, such quality assessment is intended to encourage vocational education institutions to develop their quality of vocational education up to international standards. The endeavor will enhance competitiveness and to develop the quality of vocational education sustainably. There are three levels of “Challenging” quality assessment as follows:

Quality level

Challenge

Description

C3

International Accreditation

Vocational education institution is accredited by international quality assessment agencies such as the Asia Pacific Accreditation and Certification Commission (APACC), or the European Quality Assurance in VET Towards New Eco Skills and Environmentally Sustainable Economy (EQVET-US), etc.

C2

National Aspiration

Vocational education institution can achieve their educational reform goals or achieve national education strategic goals such as the Thailand Policy 4.0, etc.

C1

National Needs

Vocational education institution effectively implements the policies of the parent organization/Ministry of Education. Its graduates are employed in the field of their studies, or self-employed in the fields related to their studies within 1 year after their graduation. Otherwise, the vocational education institution can deliver teaching of bilateral vocational education system, etc.

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